Mammalian cells have a phospholipid bilayer surrounding them. Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid that normally sits on the inner (cytosolic) layer of the cell membrane but under stress, sickness or apoptosis moves to the outer (extracellular) membrane.
The process of phosphatidylserine externalisation is reversible, which is why sick or stressed cells can return to a healthy state if appropriately targeted by treatments.
DARC is the biomarker that binds to the exposed phosphatidylserine to allow identification of sick, stressed and apoptotic cells. The fluorescent label of the biomarker allows it to be imaged, non-invasively and in real-time, using standard imaging equipment.
DARC allows the opportunity to not only monitor disease activity (DARC count) but also treatment efficacy reduction in DARC count.
THE DARC PROCESS
At this time DARC is formulated as an intravenous injection which is administered to the patient 2 hours before image capture. Individual sick, stressed and apoptosing cells are then visible as white dots on the image. Using our patented AI Algorithm, the number and pattern of distribution of these dots can be quantified, allowing the clinician to diagnose if a patient has glaucoma or AMD and predict rate of disease progression.
DARC can be used to measure the impact of current and future medications and interventions by assessment of disease activity.
DARC can therefore identify non-responders to existing and new interventions, resulting in the avoidance of costly ineffective or un-required medical management.